The 2jz-Gte is a high performance 3.0 liter, inline 6 cylinder engine. it features dual overhead camshafts (dohc), 4 valves per cylinder, twin sequential water-jacketed turbochargers with a common charge air cooler (air to air intercooler). it is a "square" configuration with equal bore and stroke dimensions. it is also designed as a non-interference type engine and both camshafts are driven from a common toothed drive belt.
Tts mate, the 2jz-ge, or naturally aspirated (na) version of the engine, shares the same block casting, but is fitted with higher compression pistons. the two head castings are similar as they both must fit on a common block, but are cast and machined differently to suit the design requirements of the two models. the real differences between the two engines are found in the ancillary systems such as fuel, ignition, intake/exhaust, cooling, and of course the turbochargers and their control system.
where similarities or commonality exists between the gte and the ge engine, they will be mentioned, otherwise the descriptions below are for the gte engine.
1. what is the difference between an i-6 engine and a v-6?
the i-6 Supra engine has all six cylinders "inline". the camry's and other models in the toyota lineup use a six-cylinder engine with its cylinders arranged in a "v" like an american v-8. the supra engine is a superior design for smoothness, high performance potential, and ease of modification. sadly, toyota has decided to phase out their i-6 engines in favor of the v-6, for economic and space reasons.
2. what is meant by "...designed as a non-interference engine"?
by definition, if the design of the paths of the valves and piston causes them to intersect at any point, regardless of the timing, the engine is an interference engine. in practical terms this means that if the camshaft drive system (timing belt) breaks in an interference engine, and several valves are left open or partially open, chances are there will be damaged valves, pistons, and perhaps other components. in a non-interference engine, if the timing belt breaks, the engine will simply stop running, but there will be no damage to it. some honda and dsm engine designs are the interference type.
3. i sometimes hear slight detonation when boosting.
if this is consistent with any type of readily available fuel, you are probably running too much boost.
4. what causes knocking, pinging, detonation, and pre-ignition?
detonation and pre-ignition are about the same thing, they just happen at different times in the compression cycle. pre-ignition is either caused by hot spots that pre-ignite the fuel before the spark plug goes off or the actual compression of the air/fuel igniting the mix. remember, when you compress a gas, you heat it up. that's why too much boost can cause extra high cylinder temperatures and subsequent pre-ignition. a lot of people call this detonation, but it isn't. you can feel pre-ignition, it will feel like rough power. detonation occurs after the spark. if the air/fuel ratio is too lean, you don't get a nice progression of the flame front from the spark plug towards the bottom of the cylinder. the burn will be uneven, and you will develop many different flame fronts going in many different directions. as these flame fronts collide, they make noise and you hear the knocking and pinging. more importantly, the oxygen is going to react with something. better it react with gas than metal. both of these will lead to high EGTs. now hesitation can be caused by both lean and rich conditions. usually by too rich conditions. you basically flood out the spark and it doesn't light off the air/fuel mixture. this will lead to black smoke out the tail pipe and low EGTs. if you run too lean to get a hesitation, you will be way past the point that your EGTs should be sky high. another thing to check is make sure all injectors are firing. you should be able to do this at idle by putting a screwdriver on the injector and the other end butted up against your ear. or, you can sometimes feel them by putting the tip of your finger nail on the injector and pushing a little hard. the vibration is carried through the bone and you feel it.
bore & stroke of the engine are both 86mm (3.39") giving a true displacement of 2997cm3 (183in3). The turbocharged (gte) engine has a compression ratio of 8.5:1, while the na (ge) engine is raised to 10.0:1 using different pistons and head configuration. the engine is internally balanced, has a firing order of 1-5-3-6-2-4, and produces a maximum horsepower of 320 (sae net) @ 5600 rpm, with 315 ft-lbf peak torque @ 4000 rpm.
the engine has an advanced dis type cop (coil on plug) ignition system which is crank and camshaft triggered. no external ignition timing adjustments are available or necessary. all timing adjustment is made electronically by the engine management system (ems) according to internal 3d ignition maps. two knock sensors are provided and timing is retarded by the EMS when knock is sensed.
fuel delivery is by a sfi system with both pulse rate and fuel pressure adjusted according to load demand by the engine management system.
intake air is measured before the turbochargers by a hot-wire type, mass airflow (maf) meter. this measurement is then compensated for temperature & barometric pressure (altitude) in the engine management system.
all systems are controlled by an integrated engine management system consisting of a main engine control module (ecm) and several peripheral electronic control units (ecu) for the ancillary systems.